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Absolute:
A measure having as its zero point or base the complete absence of the entity being measured.

Absolute pressure:
The pressure above zero absolute, i.e., the sum of atmospheric and gauge pressure.  In vacuum related work it is usually expressed in millimeters, or inches, of mercury.

Acceptance sampling:
A statistical quality control method that seeks to determine the quality of a product by sampling a small portion of it.  It does not assure that 100 percent of the product is acceptable, but reduces the likelihood of acceptance of a defective product.

Accumulator:
A container in which fluid (generally nitrogen) is stored under pressure as a source of fluid power.

Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF):
The fibrous, least-digestible portion of roughage. ADF consists of the highly indigestible parts of the forage, including lignin, cellulose, silica and insoluble forms of nitrogen.

Acid Detergent Insoluble Nitrogen (ADIN):
A measure of the nitrogen remaining in the acid detergent fibre residue of a feed sample. Usually considered to be an indicator of heat damage that can occur during storage or processing.

Acid Detergent Insoluble Protein (ADIP):
Is the insoluble protein fraction, which is unavailable to the animal due to heat damage.  Also referred to as acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP).

Acidification:
When applied to feed is used to enhance the stomach acidity, reduce pH and salmonella infection as well as improving pig performance.

Acre (a):
A unit of area used in English-speaking countries, equal to 4,840 square yards (0.405 hectares).

Actuator:
A device for converting pneumatic or hydraulic energy into mechanical energy.  A motor or cylinder.

Additives:
Pharmaceutical or nutritional substances that are not natural feedstuffs, which are added to made-up and stored feeds for various purposes. Chiefly to control infectious disease, promote growth, feed preservation or flavour.

Adhesive:
A substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment. It is a general term and includes cements, mucilage, and paste, as well as glue.

Aerobic:
Requiring oxygen.

Agri-business:
The group of industries dealing with agricultural produce and services to agriculture.

Agriculture:
Anything having to do with farming (raising crops or livestock for food, fibre or fur; or the industry which includes marketing, processing and trade in these products).

Air dry basis:
A parameter of stating the nutrient value of feed ingredients or feed that has naturally dried in the open air until it can not dry or dissipate any more moisture (usually around 10-12% moisture).

Alfalfa:
A valuable leguminous crop for forage or hay used in livestock feeding.

Amino acids:
Building blocks of protein, linked together by peptide bonds. The quality of a protein, in terms of its value as an animal feed, depends upon its content of essential amino acids.

Amplifier:
A device for amplifying the error signal sufficiently to cause actuation of the stroke control.  Several types of servo amplifiers are used at the present time: electronic (DC, AC, phase sensitive, and magnetic) and mechanical.

Amplitude of sound:
The loudness of a sound.

Anaerobic:
Without oxygen.

Analog:
A continuous range of numbers or values.

Angle of repose:
The maximum angle measured in degrees at which a granular material retains its slope.

Animal by-products:
As raw material these are all the animal tissues from the livestock industry which are not for direct use as human food. After rendering, for example, they become products such as meat and bone meal (MBM), blood meal, tallow and animal fats.

Animal feed (Agrifeed):
Edible material that provides nourishment in the form of energy and for building tissues. Contributes to the normal physiological function and metabolic homeostasis of an organism, by the oral provision of nutrients to any kind or class of animal.

Animal nutrition:
The science of dietary foods for animals, providing the basis on which to formulate a complete and balanced food intake in accordance with the animal's needs.

Animal unit:
A standard measure based on feed requirements, used to combine various classes of livestock according to size, weight, age and use.

Anisotropic:
Exhibiting different properties when measured along different axes.  In general, fibrous materials such as wood are anisotropic.

Annular area:
A ring shaped area - often refers to the net effective area of the rod side of a cylinder piston, i.e., the piston area minus the cross-sectional area of the rod.

Antibiotics:
Substances produced by living organisms, such as molds, which inhibit the growth or reproduction of other bacteria or kill them. Added to animal feed to help prevent the spread of diseases when animals are kept in crowded conditions, and because animals which take antibiotics grow more rapidly.

Antimicrobial:
An agent that kills bacteria or suppresses their multiplication or growth, including antibiotics and synthetic agents.

Aquaculture:
The farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants with some sort of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc.

As fed basis:
Weight of the feed or ingredient before drying (including moisture content).  Also referred to by the terms: as-fed, as-is or as-received.

Atmospheric pressure:
Pressure exerted by the atmosphere at any specific location.  (Sea level pressure is approximately 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute.)

Average daily gain:
Pounds (kg) of live weight gained per day.

Axial force:
A push (compression) or pull (tension) acting along the length of a member, expressed in kilonewtons (pounds).

Axial stress:
The axial force acting at a point along the length of a member divided by the cross-sectional area of a member, expressed in kilopascals (pounds per square inch).

Back connected:
A condition where pipe connections are on normally unexposed surfaces of hydraulic equipment.  (Gasket mounted units are back connected.)

Backgrounding:
Growing program for feeder cattle from the time calves are weaned until they are on a finishing ration in the feedlot. Backgrounding is the management process of feeding the stocker animal.

Back pressure:
A pressure in series.  Usually refers to pressure existing on the discharge side of a load.  It adds to the pressure required to move the load.

Baghouse:
An air pollution control device that captures particulate in filter bags.

Balanced ration:
To be balanced a ration must contain the 5 essential elements - water, protein, energy, vitamins and minerals in the proper amount and ratios for the species being fed.

Barley:
A cereal crop grown mainly for malting and as an animal feed.

Batch rendering:
The traditional method of rendering whereby discrete quantities of shredded raw animal by-products are cooked/dried in a closed vessel, either under pressure or, more normally under atmospheric conditions

Bearings:
A part on which the arbor, pivot, pin, or the like, turns or revolves.

Beets:
Typically for human consumption, however varieties of beets (Beta vulgaris) have been developed specifically to provide feed for cattle.

Belt:
Part of the conveyor on which pieces of wood are displaced.

Bight:
A work area made hazardous by a line or equipment under tension.

Biodegradable:
Something that breaks down to its component parts in the environment.

Biomass:
The quantity of biological matter of one or more species present on a unit area.  With respect to trees, biomass can be expressed in terms of various components (wood, bark, foliage, roots, etc.) of all trees on a unit area or of a single tree; biomass quantities of trees are commonly expressed on an oven-dry weight basis.

Biomass boiler:
Biomass boilers burn bark, sander dust and other wood-related scrap not usable in product production. Also called "hogged fuel" boilers, biomass boilers make steam and heat for mill use.

Biotechnology:
The use of technology, based on living systems, to develop processes and products for commercial, scientific, or other purposes. These include specific techniques of plant regeneration and gene manipulation and transfer (see also genetic engineering).

Bit:
The smallest unit of memory in a computer.  A bit is a single digit and can only have the values 0 or 1.  Bits are combined into words of memory.

Bleed-off:
To divert a specific controllable portion of hydraulic pump delivery directly to reservoir.

Blood Meal:
The dried and powdered blood of animals, used in animal feeds and as a nitrogen-rich fertilizer for plants. Usually comes from cattle as a slaughterhouse by-product.

Boiler:
Steam generation equipment.

Bond strength:
The unit load applied in tension, compression, flexure, cleavage, or shear, required to break an adhesive assembly, with failure occurring in or near the plane of the bond.

Bone-dry ton (BDT):
Material that weighs 2,000 pounds at zero percent moisture content. Also known as an Ovendry ton or Bone Dry Metric Ton.

Bone-dry unit (BDU):
A quantity of wood residue that would weigh 2,400 pounds at zero percent moisture content.

Bone Meal:
Bone meal is a white powder made by grinding either raw or steamed animal bones.  A product of the rendering industry that is used as an organic fertilizer for plants and in animal feed. In most parts of the world, bone meal is no longer allowed in feed for ruminant animals (fear of spread of BSE, mad cow disease).

Braze:
As in welding, a method of adhering or soldering carbide or other hard metal teeth inserts, or joining pieces of metal.

Breather:
A device which permits air to move in and out of a container or component to maintain atmospheric pressure.

British thermal unit (Btu):
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.

Buteric silage:
Silage that is too wet and does not ferment properly.

By-pass protein:
Refers to the portion of intake protein in a feed that is not broken down in the rumen but is digested directly in the small intestine. Also referred to as undegradable intake protein (UIP), rumen undegradable protein (RUP) or escape protein.

Byproduct:
Product of considerably less value than the major product. For example, the hide and offal are byproducts, while beef is the major product.

Cake:
Cake is the main source of protein in animal feed. Produced by extracting vegetable oils from various oilseeds: soya, rapeseed, sunflower, copra, sesame, etc. leaving a product, generally rich in protein.

Calibration:
1.  Adjusting the control or recording equipment to reflect the actual control or recording
     temperatures.
2.  Procedures that involve scanning an object of known size.  Calibration is used to adjust
     scanner readings for greater accuracy.

Calorific value:
The potential heat-production value of a wood source.  Depends on the cellulose-lignin ratio, the percentage of extractives, and the moisture content.

Canola:
The American name for oilseed rape, an arable crop grown for the extraction of oil from the seeds.  Canola (rapeseed) meal, a byproduct of the oil extraction process is used as a high-protein animal feed.

Can velocity:
The velocity of the gas in the passages between the filter units in the filter house of a gas filter.

Capillary action:
The combination of solid-liquid adhesion and surface tension by which liquid moves through a cellular structure.

Capital cost:
The total investment needed to complete a project and bring it to a commercially operable status. The cost of construction of a new plant or the expenditures for the purchase/acquisition of existing facilities.

Carbohydrates:
Chemical compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. In plants they can be divided into those that serve as storage and energy reserves and those that are structural. A major source of energy in livestock feeds.

Carnivores:
Animals that feed on other animals or material of animal origin.

Cartridge:
1.  The replaceable element of a fluid filter.
2.  The pumping unit from a vane pump, composed of the rotor, ring, vanes and one or both side
     plates.

Cavitation:
A localized gaseous condition within a liquid stream which occurs where the pressure is reduced to the vapor pressure.

Cellulose:
One of the major structural materials in the plant cell walls that can be utilized by microorganisms in the rumen.

Celsius (C):
The international temperature scale in which water freezes at 0 and boils at 100 under normal atmospheric conditions.   °C = (°F - 32) ÷ 1.8.

Centimetre (cm):
A metric unit of length equal to one hundredth of a metre.  2.54 cm is equal to one inch.

Centrifugal force:
The force which impels a thing, or parts of a thing, outward from a center of rotation.

Chaff:
The empty pods or scale-like seed covers which are separated from the grain in the threshing and cleaning operation.

Channel:
A fluid passage, the length of which is large with respect to its cross-sectional dimension.

Charge pressure:
The pressure at which replenishing fluid is forced into the hydraulic system (above atmospheric pressure).

Charge (supercharge):
1.  To replenish a hydraulic system above atmospheric pressure.
2.  To fill an accumulator with fluid under pressure. (See Precharge pressure)

Check valve:
A valve which permits flow of fluid in one direction only.

Chelated Mineral:
A mineral such as copper or zinc that is bonded by two or more chemical bonds with peptides or amino acids. Each has a varying level of absorption and efficacy.

Chick Crumbs:
Small particles of specially formulated feed suitable for very young poultry.

Circuit:
An arrangement of components interconnected to perform a specific function within a system.

Closed center valve:
One in which all ports are blocked in the center or neutral position.

Closed loop:
A system in which the output of one or more elements is compared to some other signal to provide an actuating signal to control the output of the loop.

Cogeneration:
The process of burning fuel to produce electricity and usable steam.

Co-gen operation:
Refers to the production of usable steam and electricity using a particular kind of fuel (for example, woodchips, oil, coal, hydro).

Colostrum:
The first type of milk secreted by a mammal, for the first three to four days after birth. Contains high levels of protein, vitamins, antibodies, etc.

Column:
A free standing axially loaded compression member, usually vertical.

Command signal (or input signal):
An external signal to which the servo must respond.

Compensator control:
A displacement control for variable pumps and motors which alters displacement in response to pressure changes in the system as related to its adjusted pressure setting.

Complete feed:
A ration that provides all the nutrients required. This can be purchased or it can be made up on farm.

Composites:
Built-up, bonded products consisting wholly of natural wood, or in combination with metals, plastics, etc.

Compound feed:
Any feed produced by an animal feed manufacturer. It may be a complete or a supplementary feed.

Compressibility:
The change in volume of a unit volume of a fluid when it is subjected to a unit change in pressure.

Computer simulations:
Computer software that models actions or occurrences in the real world.

Concentrates:
Feeds high in energy, low in fibre and highly digestible, for example, barley, oats, wheat, canola meal, soybean meal and molasses.

Conditioners:
Equipment that improves compressibility and binding of feed mixtures by controlling variables such as heat, moisture and time.

Continuous rendering:
Most common method of rendering whereby a continuous flow of shredded raw animal by-products are cooked/dried.

Control:
A device used to regulate the function of a unit (See Hydraulic control, Manual control, Mechanical control, and Compensator control).

Control console:
Fabricated metal cabinet housing buttons and switches for the control of a machine center.

Control valve:
A device that controls the flow of liquids or gases.

Conventional Chemical West Chemistry Analysis:
Traditional laboratory methods used to analyze feed samples involving various chemical, drying, burning procedures to determine the major chemical components within the feed sample.

Cookers:
Cookers are used in aquafeeds for steaming/cooking feeds to assist with water stability through starch gelatinisation.

Coolers:
Coolers/Dryers reduce the temperature of feed pellets to ambient(or less) and/or reduce the moisture content to 10-12%(or less).  Two basic types exist, horizontal and vertical.

Copra Meal:
Is the dried meat, or kernel, of the coconut. Used as an animal feed especially among horse enthusiasts.

Corn:
Also known as Maize, is a cereal grain. In the United States and Canada, the primary use for maize is as a feed for livestock, forage, silage or grain.

Cottonseed Hulls:
Parts of the cottonseed head that is left after the cotton and meal have been extracted. Normally considered to be a very low quality feed for ruminants.

Cottonseed Meal:
The byproduct remaining after cotton lint is removed, the seeds crushed and the oil extracted. The remaining meal is usually used for animal feed. However, the meal contains a compound called gossypol which at a certain levels can only be tolerated by adult ruminants.

Cottonseed Whole:
Whole cottonseed may be used as a feed for mature cattle. It is usually soaked in water and fed in small quantities as a supplement to green feed.

Counterbalance valve:
A pressure control valve which maintains back pressure to prevent a load from falling.

Counterbore depth:
Counterbore depth
Also known as Relief. Refers to different shapes and depth configurations of the outlets of a pellet die hole. Types include: Straight/Standard, Tapered and Variable Counterbore.

Countersunk inlet:
Inlets in a pellet die that have been countersunk, normally 55 to 60 degrees. Acts to encourage material into the holes of the pellet die.

Cracking pressure:
The pressure at which a pressure actuated valve begins to pass fluid.

Crude fibre:
A chemical method used to describe the indigestible portion of plant material. Not a useful value for analyzing feeds for ruminants but still commonly used for monogastrics.

Crude Protein:
The total amount of protein present as calculated from the total nitrogen present.

Crumblers:
A crumbler is a roller mill with rolls specially designed for breaking up pellets into smaller particles. Usually the crumbler consists of two corrugated rolls situated below the cooler/drier exit.

Cud:
A mouthful of previously swallowed food, regurgitated from the first stomach of ruminants. The cud is then chewed again further breaking it down for digestion.

Cure:
To change the properties of an adhesive by chemical reaction (which may be condensation, polymerization, or vulcanization) and thereby develop maximum strength.  Usually accomplished by the action of heat or a catalyst with or without pressure.

Cushion:
A device sometimes built into the ends of a hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder which restricts the flow of fluid at the outlet port, thereby arresting the motion of the piston rod.

Cylinder:
A device which converts fluid power or air into linear mechanical force and motion.  It usually consists of a movable element such as a piston and piston rod, plunger rod, plunger or ram, operating within a cylindrical bore.

Deadband:
The region or band of no response where an error signal will not cause a corresponding actuation of the controlled variable.

Decompression:
The slow release of confined fluid to gradually reduce pressure on the fluid.

Deficient (deficiencies):
Short of certain nutrients.

Dehusked:
To remove the outer layer (chaff) on grain.

Delta:
The amount of change in a number, size or position.

Density:
When applied to feed rations, describes the amount of nutrients within a measurement unit of the total ration.

De-superheater:
A device for removing the excess heat in steam as its pressure is reduced.

De-vent:
To close the vent connection of a pressure control valve permitting the valve to function at its adjusted pressure setting.

Diet:
The total amount of feed ingredients (or mixture of ingedients) and drink for an animal.

Differential current:
The algebraic summation of the current in the torque motor; measured in MA (milliamperes).

Differential cylinder:
Any cylinder in which the two opposed piston areas are not equal.

Diffusion:
Movement of moisture from areas of high to low concentration or temperature.

Digestible:
Ration easily digested by the animal.

Digestible Dry Matter (DDM):
Is an estimate of digestible fibre in a forage sample.  Different formulas are used to calculate this value depending on the laboratory.

Digestible Energy (DE):
Is the gross intake energy minus the fecal energy.  An indication of the actual amount of energy the animal has available for use.

Digestible Protein (DCP):
The amount of crude protein actually absorbed by the animal (crude protein minus the protein lost in feces).

Digestion:
Refers to all changes that feed undergoes within the digestive tract, with the end result being that the broken down products are absorbed from the digestive tract for use by the animal.

Diluent:
An edible substance used to mix with and reduce the concentrate of nutrients and/or additives to make them more acceptable to animals, safer to use and more capable of being mixed uniformly in a feed.

Directional valve:
A valve which selectively directs or prevents fluid flow to desired channels.

Displacement:
The quantity of fluid which can pass through a pump, motor or cylinder in a single revolution or stroke.

Dither:
A low amplitude, relatively high frequency periodic electrical signal, sometimes superimposed on the servo valve input to improve system resolution.  Dither is expressed by the dither frequency (Hz) and the peak-to-peak dither current amplitude (ma).

Double sheave:
A pulley block with two grooved wheels.

Drain:
A passage in, or a line from, a hydraulic component which returns leakage fluid independently to reservoir or to a vented manifold.

Drive pulley:
The first of a train of wheels, giving motion to the rest.

Dryers:
Dryers/Coolers reduce the temperature of feed pellets to ambient(or less) and/or reduce the moisture content to 10-12%(or less).  Two basic types exist, horizontal and vertical.

Dry feeds:
Complete feeds, hay and supplements - feeds that are around 90% dry matter.

Dry matter (DM):
Total weight of feed minus the weight of water in the feed, expressed as a percentage.  Also referred to as: dry, dry basis, dry result or moisture-free basis.

Dry Matter Intake (DMI):
All the nutrients contained in the dry portion of the feed consumed by animals.

Efficiency:
The ratio of output to input.  Volumetric efficiency of a pump is the actual output in gpm divided by the theoretical or design output.  The overall efficiency of a hydraulic system is the output power divided by the input power.  Efficiency is usually expressed as a percent.

Electro-hydraulic servo valve:
A directional type valve which receives a variable or controlled electrical signal and which controls or meters hydraulic flow.

Elevator:
A building or terminal where grain is elevated and transferred to an alternate mode of transportation (e.g. truck to rail, rail to ship).

Encoder:
Device attached to a moving chain that produces an electrical signal each time the chain moves a fixed distance.  The encoder is attached to the chain and used to track the movement of the pieces through a scanner.

Energy:
The ability or capacity to do work.  Measured in units of work.

Environment:

The aggregate of physical, chemical and biological factors that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival.


Error (signal):
The signal which is the albraic summation of an input signal and a feedback signal.

Eutrophic:
Nutrient enriched.

Eutrophication:
The process of nutrient enrichment.

Evaporate:
Changing water from a liquid to a vapor form.

Excess air:
Refers to the quantity of air supplied that exceeds the minimum necessary to support the combustion chemistry.

Expander:
Equipment to process feed ingredients prior to pelleting where moisture, pressure, and temperature are used to gelatinize the starch portion. The net result is increased nutritional and sensoric properties of the feed.

Extruded:
A process by which feed has been pressed, pushed or protruded through orifices under pressure.

Extruders:
Essentially a long barrel with a screw auger inside which is designed to subject feed mixtures to high heat and steam pressure.  Allows feed to be made with many different characteristics.

Fahrenheit (F):
The temperature scale in which water freezes at 32 degrees F and boils at 212 degrees F under normal atmospheric conditions.  F = (C x 1.8) + 32.

Fan pitch:
The angle of the fan blades measured one-third of the fan radius in from the tip.

Fans, variable-speed:
Fans whose motors turn at infinitely variable speeds by varying the line frequency of the power source.

Farm-made Feed:
Feeds consisting of one or more artificial and/or natural feedstuffs, produced for the exclusive use of a particular farming activity, not for commercial sale or profit.

Fat sprayer:
Equipment that applies liquid fat and/or flavors to the outer surface of feed.  Types include vacuum infusion, high speed mixing, nozzles/rotating reels and curtain/spinning discs.

Fed cattle:
Steers and heifers that have been fed concentrates, usually for 90-120 days in a feedlot.

Feed:
Edible material that provides nourishment in the form of energy and for building tissues. Contributes to the normal physiological function and metabolic homeostasis of an organism, by the oral provision of nutrients to any kind or class of animal.

Feedback loop:
Any closed circuit consisting of one or more forward elements and one or more feedback elements.

Feedback (or feedback signal):
The output signal from a feedback element.

Feed blocks:
Nutritional materials pressed into a block form which animals lick or nibble. Used usually as a vehicle for protein and mineral-vitamin mixes with a variable amount of carbohydrate in the form of cereal grain or molasses.

Feed budget:
Comparison of feed required with feed available and likely to be grown during the time of the budget projection.

Feed Contaminant:
A substance contaminating animal feed and can threaten animal and/or human health. Contaminants can be naturally or non naturally occurring.

Feed conversion:
Units of production (lb or kg weight gain) per unit of feed fed (lb or kg weight of feed fed) during a specified time period.

Feed efficiency:
The amount of feed required to produce one unit of product, such as pounds (kg) of feed to produce one pound (kg) body weight gain, or one pound (kg) of milk or one dozen eggs. Also referred to as feed conversion rate (FCR).

Feed formula:
The list of ingredients and their inclusion levels that are required to make up a ration.

Feed grade:
Said of a consignment of grain. Suitable for animal feed but not for human consumption.

Feed grain:
Any of several grains most commonly used for livestock or poultry feed, including corn, grain sorghum, oats, rye, and barley.

Feeding rate:
The amount in pounds or kilos that a specific animal must be fed per day.

Feed ingredient group:
Ingredients fall into different categories - i.e. grain, forage, protein, fat, vitamin or mineral.

Feed label (feed tag):
The details of a specific ration that should contain information such as: animal the feed is designed to be fed to, ration purpose, nutrient levels, ingredients, feeding rate, special warnings, batch number.

Feedlot:
Enterprise in which cattle are fed grain and other concentrates for usually 90-120 days. Feedlots range in size from less than 100-head capacity to many thousands.

Feed management:
The attention to detail on all aspects of feeding an animal.

Feed mill:
A place where animal feeds are manufactured.

Feed poisoning:
A group of acute illnesses due to ingestion of contaminated food. It may result from allergy, toxemia from foods such as those inherently poisonous or those contaminated by poisons, foods containing poisons formed by bacteria or bloodborne infections.

Feed speed:
The speed of a machine centre (canter, planer, etc.) usually expressed in feet per minute.

Feed standards:
Sets of tables published by the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences giving the amounts of each nutrient required by an animal for body maintenance, growth and production.

Feedstock:
A material used as a raw material in an industrial process.

Field corn:
Any variety of corn that is grown extensively in large fields primarily for livestock feed, as contrasted with the horticultural varieties, such as sweet corn or popcorn. Most field corn is of the dent variety.

Filter:
A device whose primary function is the retention by a porous media of insoluble contaminants from a fluid.

Finished cattle:
Fed cattle whose time in the feedlot is completed and are now ready for slaughter.

Fishmeal (Fish Meal):
A protein-rich meal made from processing whole fish (usually small oily and bony fish such as menhaden or anchovy) and its byproducts. Fishmeal is used as an ingredient in animal feed.

Flow control valve:
A valve which controls the rate of oil flow.

Flow rate:
The volume, mass, or weight of a fluid passing through any conductor per unit of time.

Fluid:
1.  A liquid or gas.
2.  A liquid that is specially compounded for use as a power-transmitting medium in a hydraulic
     system.

Fodder:
Any foodstuff used to specifically feed livestock. The food is given to the animals rather than having to forage for themselves. Includes hay, straw, silage, pelleted feeds, oils, mixed rations, etc.

Follow valve:
A control valve which ports oil to an actuator so the resulting output motion is proportional to the input motion to the valve.

Food grain:
Cereal seeds most commonly used for human food, chiefly wheat and rice.

Foot (ft):
A linear unit of length equal to 12 inches or a third of a yard (0.3048 m).

FOPS:
Falling object protective structure.

Forage:
Feedstuffs composed primarily of the whole plant, including stems and leaves eaten by grazing animals. Includes grasses and legumes (clovers).

Force:
Any push or pull measured in units of weight.  In hydraulics, total force is expressed by the product P (force per unit area) and the area of the surface on which the pressure acts.  F = P x A.

Four-way valve:
A directional valve having four flow paths.

FPM:
Feet per minute.

Frequency:
1.  The number of cycles per second of alternating current (example: 60 cycles per second or 60
     hertz per second).
2.  The number of times an action occurs in a unit of time.  Frequency is the basis of all sound. 
     A pump or motor's basic frequency is equal to its speed in revolutions per second multiplied
     by the number of pumping chambers.

Front connected:
A condition wherein piping connections are on normally exposed surfaces of hydraulic components.

Front end loader:
A mobile machine mounted on a wheeled or tracked chassis, equipped with a grapple, tuck, bucket, or fork-lift device, and employed in the loading, unloading, stacking, or sorting of logs or materials.

Full flow:
In a filter, the condition where all the fluid must pass through the filter element or medium.

Gallon (gal):
A unit of volume.  A US gallon is equal to 4 quarts or 231 cubic inches (approximately 3.79 liters).  A British imperial gallon is equal to four quarts or 4.55 liters.

Gastric:
Of, or relating to, the stomach.

Gauge pressure:
A pressure scale which ignores atmospheric pressure.  Its zero point is 14.7 psi absolute.

Gelatinized (Gelatinizing):
Process where starch granules are completely ruptured by a combination of moisture, heat and pressure, and in some instances, by mechanical shear.

Genetically Modified Organism (GMO):
A GMO is a new organism resulting from foreign DNA being inserted into the genome of a given species. As a result, this species takes on an inherited characteristic coded in the transplanted DNA. The main plants concerned are corn, soya, cotton and rapeseed.

Genetic Engineering:
The science of modifying the genetic constitution of plants and animals directly.

Glue:
Originally, a hard gelatin obtained from hides, tendons, cartilage, bones, etc., of animals.  Also, an adhesive prepared from this substance by heating with water.  Through general use the term is now synonymous with the term "Adhesive".

Grain:
The edible, hard seed or kernel from cereal plants such as wheat, barley, corn, oat and rye.

Grain Auger:
A machine used to move or elevate grain from one place to another (e.g. from a truck to a bin).

Gram (g):
A metric unit of weight equal to one thousandth of a kilogram; one ounce is approximately 28 grams.

Grass:
A narrow-leafed plant with seed-like grains grown for lawns and also used for pasture or grazing material for animals.

Graze (Grazing):
Animals eating grass in a field.

Greenhouse gases:
Gases that provide an insulating effect in the earth's atmosphere, potentially leading to global climate change. These gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and water vapour.

Gross Energy (GE):
The total energy in a feed. Not a very useful measure since the gross energy in most common feeds is about the same.

Hammermill:
Equipment used to reduce particle size. Achieved by impact with swinging hammers.

Hammermill rods:
Rods inside the hammermill, which the hammers attach to.

Hammermill screens:
Perforated screens inside a hammermill used to separate particle sizes. Particles successfully reduced by the hammer mill pass through the screen and leave the hammer mill with the aid of a pneumatic system.

Haulm:
The stems and leaves of a crop left after harvest.

Hay:
A mature grass or legume that has been cut and allowed to dry in the field. After drying it is stored and used for animal feed when pasture/rangeland is not available for grazing.

Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP):
A system which identifies, evaluates and controls hazards which are significant for food safety.

Head:
The height of a column or body of fluid above a given point expressed in linear units.  Head is often used to indicate gage pressure.  Pressure  is equal to the height times the density of the fluid.

Heat:
The form of energy that has the capacity to create warmth or to increase the temperature of a substance. Any energy that is wasted or used to overcome friction is converted to heat.  Heat is measured in calories or British thermal units (Btu's).  One Btu is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.

Heat Damage:
The result of heating in feeds that essentially binds nitrogen to the fibre portion of the feed making it partially or wholly unavailable. The net effect is reduced feed quality or feeding value.

Heat exchanger:
A device which transfers heat through a conducting wall from one fluid to another.

Heat increment of feeding:
The heat produced when feed is ingested and utilized.

Heat treatment:
A process in which heat is used to treat compound feed in order to reduce the microbial load and to eliminate pathogenic germs such as salmonella.

Hectare (ha):
A metric unit of area, 100 metres by 100 metres (10,000 square metres); equivalent to 2.471 acres.

Helical:
Spiral-shaped: in the shape of a helix or spiral.

Hemicellulose:
The polysaccharide fraction existing in the cell wall of the plant.  It is similar to cellulose but is only partially digestible in the rumen.

Herbivores:
Animals that feed on plant material.

Hertz (Hz):
Unit of frequency; equal to one cycle per second (cps).

Hog fuel:
Waste wood that is used for generation of heat and process energy; made by reducing bark to a usable size.

Holocellulose:
The total carbohydrate fraction of a plant. That is, cellulose plus hemicellulose.

Hopper:
A funnel shaped bin used to store grain or pelleted feed.

Horsepower (hp):
The power required to lift 550 pounds one foot in one second or 33,000 pounds one foot in one minute.  A horsepower is equal to 746 watts or to 42.2 British thermal units per minute.

Husbandry:
Economic management of a farm; care, cultivation and breeding of crops and animals.

Hydraulic:
To move or convey by fluid.

Hydraulic balance:
A condition of equal opposed hydraulic forces acting on a part in a hydraulic component.

Hydraulic control:
A control which is actuated by hydraulically induced forces.

Hydraulics:
Engineering science pertaining to liquid pressure and flow.

Hydrodynamics:
Engineering science pertaining to the energy of liquid flow and pressure.

Hydrostatics:
Engineering science pertaining to the energy of liquids at rest.

Hygrometer:
An instrument for measuring the humidity of air.

Hygroscopic:
Changes its moisture content to be in equilibrium with the atmosphere.

Inch (in):
A unit of length equal to one-twelfth of a foot (2.54 cm).

Inclusion level:
The amount in pounds or kilos that a specific ingredient is included within a ration. This will be measured in pounds, percent, milligrams, grams, parts per million (ppm), international units (iu), etc

Ingredients:
The components that make up a ration - such as oats, corn, soybean meal.

Inorganic:
Nutrient that is a "mined from the earth" mineral or trace mineral.

Inter-relationships:
All nutrients in a ration depend on other nutrients in a ration to be utilised correctly.

In Vitro:
Refers to a feed sample that is digested in test tubes or tested outside the animal.

In Vivo:
Refers to a digestion study of feed that is tested inside the animal’s rumen or stomach.

Isotropic:
Exhibiting the same properties in all directions.

Joule (J):
1.  A unit of energy equal to the work done when a force of one newton acts through a distance
     of one metre.  One joule is equivalent to one watt second or 0.737 foot pounds.
2.  A unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere is passed
     through a resistance of one ohm for one second.

Joystick:
Stick or handle type input device mounted on the operator's console.  Some joysticks have buttons mounted on the handle.  Moving the joystick handle can send either discrete or analog input signals to the PLC.

Kappa number:
A test for the degree of lignification of pulps.

Kernels:
The individual seeds from stalks of grain.

Key:
A small, parallel-sided piece, flat or tapered on top, for securing pulleys and other parts to shafts.

Keyway:
A groove or channel for a key, as in a shaft or the hub of a pulley; a keyseat.

Kilogram (kg):
The basic unit of mass in the SI system, equal to 1,000 grams (approximately 2.2 lbs).

Kilometre (km):
A measure of length equal to 1,000 metres or 0.62 miles.

Kinetic energy:
Energy that a substance or body has by virtue of its mass (weight) and velocity.

Knuckleboom:
A hydraulically operated loading boom whose mechanical action imitates the human arm. Common on "forwarders".

Lactation:
Describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing milk to the young and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. Chief function is to provide nutrition to the young after birth.

Laminar (flow):
A condition where the fluid particles move in continuous parallel paths.

Laminate:
A product made by bonding together two or more layers (laminations) of material or materials.

Legume:
Any of thousands of plant species that have seed pods that split along both sides when ripe. Some of the more common legumes used for human consumption are beans, lentils, peanuts, peas, and soybeans. Others, such as clover and alfalfa, are used as animal feed.

Level:
Perfectly horizontal.

Leverage:
A gain in output force over input force by sacrificing the distance moved.  Mechanical advantage or force multiplication.

Lift:
The height a body or column of fluid is raised; for instance, from the reservoir to the pump inlet.  Lift is sometimes used to express a negative pressure or vacuum.  The opposite of head.

Lignin:
A complex indigestible substance that is a major structural component of mature plants.  It is contained in the fibrous portion of stems, leaves, cobs and hulls of plants.

Limit fed:
Rations fed at a specific amount per animal per day.

Limit switch:
Electrical device that transmits an electrical signal when in physical contact with an object.

Line:
A tube, pipe or hose which acts as a conductor of hydraulic fluid.

Linear actuator:
A device for converting hydraulic energy into linear motion - a cylinder or ram. 

Liter (l):
Basic unit of volume in the metric system equal to 1,000 cubic centimetres (1.056 US quarts).

Loader:
Any of a variety of machines, wheel or track mounted, designed primarily to lift and load a truck, train or other mode of transportation.

Maize:
Commonly known as corn, is a cereal grain. In the United States and Canada, the primary use for maize is as a feed for livestock, forage, silage or grain.

Manifold:
A fluid conductor which provides multiple connection ports.

Manual control:
A control actuated by the operator, regardless of the means of actuation.  Example: Lever or foot pedal control for directional valves.

Manual override:
A means of manually actuating an automatically-controlled device.

Material balance:
A relationship, often portrayed in a diagram, that shows how all components of a raw material are allocated and used.

Meal:
A dry mix of feed ingredients, usually with the individual feeds distinguishable in the mix.

Meat and Bone Meal (MBM):
Is a product of the rendering industry primarily used in the formulation of animal feed.  In most parts of the world, MBM is no longer allowed in feed for ruminant animals (fear of spread of BSE, mad cow disease).

Mechanical control:
Any control actuated by linkages, gears, screws, cams or other mechanical elements.

Megacalorie (Mcal):
Units used to describe quantities of energy in a large animal’s diet. Equal to 1,000 kilocalories (Kcal).

Metabolised:
The process whereby the food is digested to enable the animal to utilise the nutrients.

Metabolizable Energy (ME):
The digestible energy intake minus the energy in the urine minus the energy in the gaseous product of digestion. The ME value of individual feeds is rarely measured.

Metabolizable Protein (MP):
Protein (amino acids) that is actually absorbed from the gut. MP consists of protein in the rumen, microorganisms, feed protein and any protein that bypasses digestion in the rumen.

Meter:
To regulate the amount or rate of fluid flow.

Meter-in:
To regulate the amount of fluid flow into an actuator or system.

Meter-out:
To regulate the flow of the discharge fluid from an actuator or system.

Metre (m):
The metric basic unit for linear measurement equal to 39.37 inches (1.094 yards).

Microbes (microorganism):
Any organism, such as a germ, virus, or pathogen, of microscopic size.

Micron:
One-millionth of a metre or approximately .00004 inch.

Micron rating:
The size of the particles a filter will remove.

Mile (mi):
A unit of linear measurement on land, equivalent to 5,280 feet (1,760 yd) or 1.6 kilometres.

Mill:
To Mill, verb - grind ingredients to make Meal or noun - a synonym for Meal.

Milligrams in a Kilogram (mg/kg):
Units of concentration. This measure is the same as parts per million (ppm). 1 mg/kg = 1 ppm

Millimetre (mm):
A unit of length equal to one thousandth of a metre (0.0394 inches).

Minerals (major):
Minerals such as calcium and phosphorous that are included in a ration in relatively large amounts. Usually measured in grams per day.

Minerals (minor/trace):
Minerals such as copper and zinc that are included in a ration in very small amounts. Usually measured in 1/1000 of a gram or milligrams per head per day.

Mixer:
Mechanical means of achieving a balanced feed ingredient formulation.  Two basic types exist, vertical mixers and horizontal mixers.

Mixer (horizontal):
Horizontal mixers consist of a series of paddles or metal ribbon blades mounted on a horizontal rotor within a semi-circular trough. The blades move the material from one end of the mixer to the other, tumbling it as it goes.

Mixer (vertical):
The vertical mixer consists of one or more vertical screws which elevate the feed ingredients to the top of the mixer where they fall by gravity to the bottom, to be mixed and re-elevated.

Modulate:
To control within an infinite range between 0 percent and 100 percent as opposed to on/off control.

Monitor:
Screen on which an electronics systems display information.

Monogastric:
Non ruminant animal having only one stomach, e.g. pig, human.

Motor:
A device which converts electricity or hydraulic fluid power into mechanical force and motion.  It usually provides rotary mechanical motion.

Motor control center (MCC):
Central location for circuit breakers for mill equipment.

Mycotoxin:
Mycotoxins are substances produced by moulds that contaminate various agricultural commodities either before harvest or under post-harvest conditions. Mycotoxins can appear in the food chain either by being eaten directly by humans, or by being used as livestock feed.

Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) Analysis:
Rapid and low-cost computerized method to analyze forage and grain crops for their nutritive value. NIRS uses infrared light to determine protein, fibre, energy and mineral content.

Net Energy for Growth (NEg):
An estimate of the energy value of a feed used for body tissue gain (weight gain) above that required for maintenance.

Net Energy for Lactation (NEl):
An estimate of the energy value of a feed used for maintenance plus milk production during lactation and for maintenance plus the last two months of gestation for dry, pregnant cows.

Net Energy for Maintenance (NEm):
An estimate of the energy value of a feed used to keep an animal in energy equilibrium, neither gaining weight nor losing weight.

Net Energy (NE):
Is metabolizable energy minus the heat increment of feeding. The net energy system divides energy requirements into net energy for maintenance (NEm) and net energy for growth (NEg) or net energy for lactation (NEl) in milking cows.

Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF):
Commonly called “cell walls”. NDF gives a close estimate of fibre constituents of feedstuffs as it measures cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin, silica, tannins and cutins.

Newton (N):
Unit of force equivalent to the force that produces an acceleration of one metre per second per second on a mass of one kilogram.

Nitrate percent (NO3%):
Part of the nitrogen-containing feed fraction. However it contributes very little to the crude protein percentage. Feeds containing high levels of nitrate (greater than 1 percent) can be toxic to ruminants.

Non-protein Nitrogen (NPN):
Nitrogen that comes from other than organic protein sources that can be used by ruminants to make animal protein. NPN sources are compounds like urea and ammonia.

Nontherapeutic:
Use of antibiotics at low dosage levels over long periods.  Antibiotic therapy is initiated as a general treatment applied without a specific diagnosis.

Nutrients:
An element, compound or group of compounds that can be used as nourishment by an animal. Items such as protein, fat, fiber, energy, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins.

Oats:
A cereal crop grown for animal feed and for cereal foods for human consumption.

Oilseed crops:
Primarily soybeans, and other crops such as peanuts, cottonseed, sunflower seed, flaxseed, safflower seed, rapeseed, sesame seed, castor beans, canola, rapeseed and mustard seeds used to produce edible and/or inedible oils, as well as high-protein animal meal.

Oilseed meal:
The product obtained by grinding the cakes, chips, or flakes that remain after most of the oil is removed from oilseeds. Used as a feedstuff for livestock and poultry.

Oilseed Rape:
An arable crop, also known as canola, grown for the extraction of oil from the seeds. Rapeseed (canola) meal, a byproduct of the oil extraction process is used as a high-protein animal feed.

Oligotrophic:
Nutrient poor (not necessarily base poor).

Omnivores:
Animals that feed on material of both plant and animal origin.

Open center circuit:
One in which pump delivery flows freely through the system and back to the reservoir in neutral.

Open center valve:
One in which all ports are interconnected and open to each other in the center or neutral position.

Organic:
Nutrient that is vegetable or animal origin.

Organic matter:
The total weight of the feed minus the weight of the mineral matter (or ash) in the feed.

Orifice:
A restriction, the length of which is small in respect to its cross-sectional dimensions.

Palatability:
Taste appeal, the degree of acceptability of a feed to livestock.

Parts per million (ppm):
1 milligram per kilogram = 1ppm = 1 pound per million pounds.

Pascal (Pa):
A unit of pressure or stress equal to one newton per square metre.

Pasture:
An area of grassy land where farm animals range and feed.

Pellet dies:
The component of a pellet mill that contains small holes through which soft feed it forced producing cyclindrical feed pellets.

Pelleted:
A ration that goes through the process to compact the ration into a pellet.

Pelleting compression ratio:
The ratio between the effective pelleting length (the actual compression thickness) and the pellet hole diameter (D).

Pellet mill:
Type of mill that creates cylindrical feed pellets from a mixture of feedstock ingredients. Achieved by forcing soft feed through holes in a metal die plate to form compacted pellets which are then cut to a pre-determined size.

Pellet rolls:
Single or double rolls (also known as pellet shells) mounted inside the die ring which turn and force feed into the die holes.  Patterns/Configurations include: corrugated open end, corrugated closed end, corrugated helical, standard dimple, tungsten and pinnacle.

Percent Moisture (% H2O):
Indicates the proportion of water in the feed sample, calculated by weighing the sample before and after complete drying.

Pet:
An animal kept for the pleasure of its owner.

Petfood:
Feed intended for consumption by cats, dogs or any animals kept for the pleasure of its owner.

pH:
The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution.  pH levels below 7 are acidic and above 7 are alkaline.

Photocell:
Device used to detect the presence of an object.  A photocell is composed of a transmitter, which transmits an infrared signal to a receiver or reflector.

Photosynthesis:
A process that plants use to synthesize nutrients from water and minerals using sunlight.

Pile:
A long, heavy timber, round or square, driven deep into the ground to provide a secure foundation for structures built on soft, wet, or submerged sites (e.g., landing stages, bridge abutments).

Pilot pressure:
Auxiliary pressure used to actuate or control hydraulic components.

Pilot valve:
An auxiliary valve used to control the operation of another valve.  The controlling stage of a 2-stage valve.

Piston:
A cylindrically shaped part which fits within a cylinder and transmits or receives motion by means of a connecting rod.

Plant-based foods:
Product based on plants or plant extracts and intended to balance the diet.

PLC:
Programmable logic controllers.  Industrial computer with I/O capability, which programs in ladder-relay logic.

Plumb:
Straight up and down, perfectly vertical.

Plunger:
A cylindrically shaped part which has only one diameter and is used to transmit thrust.  A ram.

Pod:
The container for seeds on a legume plant.

Poppet:
That part of certain valves which prevents flow when it closes against a seat.

Port:
An internal or external terminus of a passage in a component.

Positive displacement:
A characteristic of a pump or motor which has the inlet positively sealed from the outlet so that fluid cannot recirculate in the component.

Potentiometer:
A control element in the servo system which measures and controls electrical potential.

Pound (lb):
A unit of weight equal to 16 ounces (0.45 kilograms).

Power:
Work per unit of time.  Measured in horsepower (hp) or watts (W).

Power boiler:
A boiler that uses wood waste and natural gas as fuel to produce process steam.

Power pack:
An integral power supply unit usually containing a pump, reservoir, relief valve and directional control.

Precharge pressure:
The pressure of compressed gas in an accumulator prior to the admission of liquid.

Premix:
Broad term to describe a mixture of more than one component. Generally when discussing a complete ration, the premix will include all the vitamins, trace minerals, amino acids and other additives. Some premixes will include the major minerals as well.

Pressure:
Force per unit area. Usually measured in pounds per square inch (PSI) or kilopascals (kPa). A kilopascal is equal to 1000 newtons per square metre or 0.0102 kg/sq cm (0.145 lb/sq in).

Pressure drop:
The difference in pressure between any two points of a system or a component.

Pressure line:
The line carrying the fluid from the pump outlet to the pressurized port of the actuator.

Pressure override:
The difference between the cracking pressure of a valve and the pressure reached when the valve is passing full flow.

Pressure plate:
A side plate in a vane pump or motor cartridge on the pressure port side.

Pressure reducing valve:
A valve which limits the maximum pressure at its outlet regardless of the inlet pressure.

Pressure switch:
1.  An electric switch operated by fluid pressure.
2.  Switches that read the available pressure in air and hydraulic lines.  These switches are
     often used as a safety feature, to prevent equipment from operating when there is not enough
     air pressure or hydraulic fluid pressure.

Probiotics:
Can be a live (viable) culture of microbial species, a dead (non-viable) product of microbial fermentation or an extract of plant origin.  Added to animal feed to improve animal performance by increasing the population of desirable microorganisms in the gut.

Proportional flow:
In a filter, the condition where part of the flow passes through the filter element in proportion to pressure drop.

Protein:
Complex compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and usually sulphur are composed of one or more chains of amino acids. Proteins are essential in the diet of animals for growth, lactation and reproduction.

Proximity switch:
Photoelectric switches that are triggered as a piece passes near them.  Proximity switches are used to detect the presence or absence of material.

PSI:
Pounds per square inch.

Pump:
A device which converts mechanical force and motion into hydraulic fluid power.

Quality control:
Any activity that helps to maximize the value of the raw material through all phases of the manufacturing process.

Ram:
A single-acting cylinder with a single diameter plunger rather than a piston and rod.  The plunger in a ram-type cylinder.

Ration:
A 24-hour allotment of feed for an animal. A ration may be fed as a complete ration, or it may be made up of grazing plus a balancing supplement.

Receiver:
Head of a scanner that monitors the infrared signals transmitted by the transmitter head.

Reciprocation:
Back-and-forth straight line motion or oscillation.

Recoverable heat:
Heat energy from combustion that is actually recovered to do useful work.

Recovery boiler:
A boiler that recovers process chemicals for re-use and creates process steam with the heat it generates.

Recovery (product):
An expression of the amount of product (nominal or actual) that can be manufactured from a given input of raw material.

Regenerative circuit:
A piping arrangement for a differential type cylinder in which discharge fluid from the rod end combines with pump delivery to be directed into the head end.

Relative Feed Value (RFV):
Is a way to compare the potential of two or more like forages for energy intake. RFV has no units.

Relative humidity:
Ratio of the amount of water vapour present in the air to that which the air would hold at saturation at the same temperature.  It is usually considered on the basis of the weight of the vapour but, for accuracy, should be considered on the basis of vapour pressures.

Relief:
Also known as Counterbore Depth. Refers to different shapes and depth configurations of the outlets of a pellet die hole. Types include: Straight/Standard, Tapered and Variable Relief.

Relief valve:
A pressure operated valve which by-passes pump delivery to the reservoir, limiting system pressure to a predetermined maximum value.

Rendering:
The breaking down of animal tissues into constituent fat and protein elements, whether by the application of heat and pressure or otherwise.

Replenish:
To add fluid to maintain a full hydraulic system.

Resin:
An ingredient of coatings which acts as a binder and gives the coating physical properties such as hardness and durability.

Resolution:
The smallest unit used for taking measurements from a scanner or the encoder.

Restriction:
A reduced cross-sectional area in a line or passage which produces a pressure drop.

Return line:
A line used to carry exhaust fluid from the actuator back to sump.

Reversing valve:
A four-way directional valve used to reverse a double-acting cylinder or reversible motor.

Roller:
A cylindrical body movable about its longitudinal axis.

Rotary actuator:
A device for converting hydraulic energy into rotary motion - a hydraulic motor.

Roughage:
A misleading term that is often used to describe the fiber content of a diet leading to believe that its only purpose in a ration is to aid digestion.

RPM:
Revolutions per minute.

RTD:
A temperature measuring device that measures the change in electrical resistance to determine temperature (resistive thermal device).

Rumen:
The first compartment of four compartments of a ruminant animal’s stomach. The rumen serves as the primary site of food fermentation. Also referred to as the forestomach or paunch.

Rumen Degradable Protein (RDP):
That portion of the consumed protein that is degraded or digested in the rumen by microbes to ammonia and amino acids. It may also be referred to as degradable intake protein (DIP).

Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP):
See By-pass Protein

Ruminant:
Animal that chews the cud (partly digested food) regurgitated from its rumen, and has a stomach of four compartments. Cattle, sheep, goats, deer, and elk are ruminants.

Rung:
An element of the PLC ladder logic program.  Each rung looks at input signals and turns output signals on or off.  The program runs by scanning the ladder logic, testing the input points and the instructions on each rung, and turning the output points on or off.

Rye:
A grain crop used for bread flour and for animal feed.

Scanner:
Generally an optical or laser/camera measuring device.  Scanners are composed of a transmitter head and a receiver head, which permit electronics system to obtain the shape and the dimensions an object.

Screening equipment:
The sifter (also referred to as sieves, screens and screeners) is a separator, usually oscillating, with a number of screens. It is used to separate crumbles or granules by particle size depending on the size of hole used in the screens.

Seed:
The reproductive portion of a plant.

Sequence:
The order of a series of operations or movements.

Sequencing valve:
A pressure operated valve which, at its setting, diverts flow to a secondary line while holding a predetermined minimum pressure in the primary line.

Servo mechanism (servo):
A mechanism subjected to the action of a controlling device which will operate as if it were directly actuated by the controlling device, but capable of supplying power output many times that of the controlling device, this power being derived from an external and independent source.

Servo valve:
Electro-mechanical device used to control a setworks hydraulic cylinder.  An electrical signal is sent to the servo valve which opens, allowing hydraulic fluid to flow into the cylinder.  The voltage level and direction of the electrical signal determine the speed and direction of the setworks movement.

Set complete:
The actual position of a setworks is within a certain distance of the command position to which it was sent.

Set complete range:
The maximum distance allowed between the actual position of a setworks and the position to which the setworks was sent.  When the setworks position is in this range, the setworks is at set complete.

Sheave:
The grooved wheel of a pulley.

Sheaves:
Pulleys mounted on the end of the drive and motor shaft over which belts pass to transfer rotational force from the motor to the shaft.

Shim:
A thin piece or strip of metal used to fill in, as in leveling.

Short ton:
2,000 pounds or 0.9072 tonnes.

Shrimp Meal:
The ground and dried waste from processing of shrimp. Contains parts and/or whole shrimp that are not suitable for human consumption.  Used as an animal or aquafeed ingredient.

Signal:
A control impulse from a control device or sensor.

Silage:
Grass that has been preserved by pickling rather than drying.

Silo:
A storage building or pit in which green hay or high-moisture grains are fermented and stored as animal feed.

Snatch block:
A block that can be opened on one side to allow a cable or rope to be laid in the block, instead of threading it through from one end.

Soluble Protein:
Estimates the amount of crude protein that will readily dissolve when the feed enters the rumen.

Sorghum:
A cereal grass used mainly for feedgrain or silage.

Soybeans:
A legume crop, native to the Orient, used mainly in the United States for high protein feed and oil.

Specific gravity (SG):
Also called relative density.  As applied to wood, the ratio of the oven-dry weight of a sample to the weight of a volume of water equal to the volume of the sample at a specified moisture content (green, air-dry, or oven-dry).

Spool:
A term loosely applied to almost any moving cylindrically shaped part of a hydraulic component which moves to direct flow through the component.

Stack heat loss:
Loss of combustion heat via gas emissions in the smokestack of chimney.

Stalk:
The straw or stem-like part of the plant that supports the seed head.

Standard relief:
Also known as Straight Relief. Outlet portion of a pellet die hole that has been counterbored straight.

Starch:
The main carbohydrate component of the dry matter in grain. Contains long chains of glucose molecules, which are easily broken down by rumen microbes.

Steam:
Vapor produced by heating water.

Steam sprays:
Mechanical equipment for introducing water vapor or steam to the kiln environment.

Stem:
The stalk of a plant.

Stocker:
Weaned cattle that are fed high-roughage diets (including grazing) before going into the feedlot.

Straight feedstuff (Straights):
A vegetable or animal product in its natural state, fresh or preserved, intended as such for feeding to animals. Also an individual feed ingredient used in the production of compound animal feeds.

Strainer:
A coarse filter.

Streamline flow:
A condition where the fluid particles move in continuous parallel paths.

Stroke:
1.  The length of travel of a piston or plunger.
2.  To change the displacement of a variable displacement pump or motor.

Sub-plate:
An auxiliary mounting for a hydraulic component providing a means of connecting piping to the component.

Suction line:
The hydraulic line connecting the pump inlet port to the reservoir or sump.

Sump:
A reservoir.

Supercharge:
1.  To replenish a hydraulic system above atmospheric pressure.
2.  To fill an accumulator with fluid under pressure (See Precharge pressure).

Supplement:
A broad term that can have a number of different applications: 1) A specific ration designed to be fed to grazing animals or animals on hay. This will include the protein, energy (grain), supplemented vitamins, minerals, amino acids to balance with forage portion of the diet. 2) A specific ration as above to be added to the grain and forage on farm to make up a complete feed. 3) Any nutrient fed in addition to the basic ration is also a supplement to the overall rations and will contribute to the overall total daily nutrient intake.

Supplementation:
Vitamins, minerals, amino acids, probiotics etc. Are fed in addition to those available from the main ingredients when included within a premix that forms part of the ration.

Surge:
A transient rise of pressure or flow.

Swash plate:
A stationary canted plate in an axial type piston pump which causes the pistons to reciprocate as the cylinder barrel rotates.

Synchro:
A rotary electromagnetic device generally used as an AC feedback signal generator which indicates position.  It can also be used as a reference signal generator.

Tachometer (AC) (DC):
A device which generates an AC or DC signal proportional to the speed at which it is rotated and the polarity of which is dependent on the direction of rotation of the rotor.

Tallow:
The fat produced by the rendering process.

Tank:
The reservoir or sump.

Tapered relief:
Outlet portion of a pellet die hole that has been counterbored with a taper.

Temposonics:
Linear displacement transducer.

Therapeutic:
Use of antibiotics at dosage levels sufficient to treat, control or prevent clinical disease of bacteria origin. Antibiotic therapy is usually initiated as empirical treatment, followed by a determination of a specific diagnosis.

Thermal oil:
A heat transfer fluid used instead of steam.  They are not interchangeable within the same kiln.  Thermal oil is capable of higher temperatures at low operating pressure and is not susceptible to freezing.

Thermocouple (TC):
A sensor that measures temperature based on the voltage difference between  two dissimilar metals.

Thermosetting glues and resins:
Glues and resins that are cured with heat but do not soften when subsequently subjected to high temperatures.

Tonne:
A unit of weight in the metric system equal to 1,000 kilograms or approximately 2,204 pounds.  Also called a Metric ton.

Ton (T):
1. US unit of weight equal to 2,000 lb; also called a Short ton.
2. British unit of weight equal to 2,240 lb (1,016 kg); also called a Long ton.

Torque:
A rotary thrust.  The turning effort of a fluid motor usually expressed in inch pounds.

Torque converter:
A rotary fluid coupling that is capable of multiplying torque.

Torque motor:
A type of electromechanical transducer having rotary motion used in the input stages of servo valves.

Total daily nutrient intake:
Every nutrient that an animal consumes in a day has a contribution towards the total daily nutrient needs of that animal.

Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN):
Concept that comes from the old system of measuring available energy of feeds and energy requirements of animals involving a complex formula of measured nutrients. It is very hard to measure but widely used in some parts of the U.S. and Canada.

Total mixed ration (TMR):
Consists of all the feed ingredients mixed together to form the ration allowance for the animal.

Transducer (or feedback transducer):
An element which measures the results at the load and sends a signal back to the amplifier.

Traps:
A device that separates condensate and air from the steam within the steam heating coils.

Traps, float and thermostatic:
Traps that discharge condensate at a rate dependent on the position of an internal float.  Air is removed through a thermostatic air vent.

Traps, inverted bucket:
Mechanical traps that operate on the difference in the density between steam and water.

Traps, orifice:
Traps that discharge steam at a constant rate and have no internal moving parts to alter or stem its flow.

Traps, thermostatic:
Traps that use an internal bellows, which expands when steam flows to the trap, closing the orifice.  As condensate accumulates the bellows contracts to release it.

Trough:
A container for drinking water or feed of farm animals.

Turbine:
A rotary device that is actuated by the impact of a moving fluid against blades or vanes.

Turbulent flow (turbulence):
A condition where the fluid particles move in random paths rather than in continuous parallel paths.

Two-way valve:
A directional control valve with two flow paths.

Undegradable Intake Protein (UIP):
See By-pass Protein

Undigestible:
Ration not easily digested by the animal.

Uninterruptible power supply (UPS):
Provides conditioned power and battery backup for computers in the case of a power failure or brownout.

Unload:
To release flow (usually directly to the reservoir), to prevent pressure being imposed on the system or portion of the system.

Unloading valve:
A valve which by-passes flow to tank when a set pressure is maintained on its pilot port.

Utilization:
The ability of the animal to make use of all the nutrients within the ration.

Vacuum:
Pressure less than atmospheric pressure.  It is usually expresses in inches of mercury (in Hg) as referred to the existing atmospheric pressure.

Valve:
A device which controls fluid flow direction, pressure, or flow rate.

Variable relief:
Specific rows of pellet die holes, such as the two inner and outside rows that are counterbored to greater depths at their outlets. Acts to encourage feed flow through these holes.

Velocity:
The speed of flow through a hydraulic line.  Expressed in feet per second (fps) or inches per second (ips).

Vent:
To permit opening of a pressure control valve by opening its pilot port (vent connection) to atmospheric pressure.

Viscosity:
A measure of the internal friction or the resistance of a fluid to flow.

Viscosity index:
A measure of the viscosity-temperature characteristics of a fluid as referred to that of two arbitrary reference fluids.

Water hammer:
Potentially damaging condition in steam pipes where waves develop on the condensate surface within a pipe as steam rushes over it.  If the peak of the wave becomes high enough to reach the roof of the pipe, the water in the wave is pushed violently to the far end of the pipe.

Waterlogged:
Condition of steam coils where condensate is not discharged at a sufficient rate to keep it from accumulating in the coil.  Filled with condensate, the coils do not transfer significant heat to the kiln.

Weaning:
Removal of young mammals from their source of milk.

Wheat:
A cereal crop grown for animal feed and for the production of flour.

Wheatfeed:
A byproduct of flour milling. It contains fragments of bran, seedcoat and some flour. Rather dusty but a useful animal food.

Wobble plate:
A rotating canted plate in an axial type piston pump which pushes the pistons into their bores as it "wobbles".

Work:
The application of  force over a definite distance.  Work (W) = Force (F) x distance (s). Expressed in joules, ergs, and foot-pounds. The joule is exactly the amount of work done in exerting the basic metric unit of force, 1 newton, over the basic metric unit of distance, 1 metre.

Yard (yd):
Unit of length equal to 3 feet (91.5 centimetres).

Yield:
An expression of the amount of product (nominal or actual) that can be manufactured from a given input of raw material. Also referred to as product recovery.